This paper identifies a new reason for giving preferences to the disadvantaged using a model of contests. There are two forces at work: the e§ort e§ect working against giving preferences and the selection e§ect working for them. When education is costly and easy to obtain (as in the U.S.), the selection e§ect dominates. When education is heavily subsidized and limited in supply (as in India), preferences are welfare reducing. The model also shows that unequal treatment of identical agents can be welfare improving, providing insights into when the counterintuitive policy of rationing educational access to some subgroups is welfare improving.
Анализируя опубликованную в этом же номере журнала работу Р. Харре, автор высказывает предположение, что Р. Харре рассматривает не абстрактную возможность, а реальные условия, при которых возможность актуализируется. В терминах Харре, потенциал человеческих возможностей может увеличиваться или уменьшаться в зависимости от того, какое воздействие на него оказывает культурный социум.
Standard Modern Russian has phonological contrast between palatal- ized and velarized consonants. One of the most prominent changes attributed recently to this part of its phonetic system is the dramatic aƵrication of pala- talized dental stops which are now pronounced in most phonetic contexts as aƵricates [tsj], [dzj]. The paper proposes the hypothesis that a fast spread of palatalized dental stops’ aƵrication in Standard Modern Russian is triggered by the need to more eƵectively distinguish palatalized plosives in situations that do not provide the primary acoustic cue (formant transition of adjacent vowel) for their diƵerentiation to the listener. Palatalized dental plosives still should be treated phonologically as stops since in the context of homorganic nasal or stop they are not aƵricated (and often unreleased), while the fricative part of dental aƵricates in the same position still preserved in pronunciation of all the subjects studied.
A knot space in a manifold M is a space of oriented immersions S1 ↪ M up to Diff(S 1). J.-L. Brylinski has shown that a knot space of a Riemannian threefold is formally Kähler. We prove that a space of knots in a holonomy G 2 manifold is formally Kähler.
In this article we study a controlled Continuous Time Random Walk and its position-dependent extensions. We heuristically derive the optimal payoff function equations for their scaling limits. The general equation for the corresponding optimal payoff of the limiting process may be called a fractional Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation.
The evolution of the Afroeurasian world-system which in the ‘long 16th century’ was transformed into the global World System comprised both economic and political components, some of which are discussed in the present article. Earlier research has identified four major zones of instability which can be designated as the Central Asian (including Afghanistan and Pakistan), the Middle East, North Africa, and the Sahel region. We suggest considering these four zones as a single Afrasian macrozone of instability. We show that this zone correlates rather closely with the zone of traditional prevalence of the parallel cousin marriage, as well as with the zone of very low female labor force participation rate, and the territory of the Umayyad Califate. The article demonstrates that this correlation is not coincidental and also discusses the factors and mechanisms that have produced it.