Множество отраслей состоят из нескольких больших фирм, которые способны влиять на общий итог рынка, и многих маленьких фирм, которые по отдельности имеют незначительное влияние. Мы предлагаем модель общего равновесия, описывающую обе эти рыночные структуры. Вход на рынок больших фирм ведет к ужесточению конкуренции. Это, в свою очередь, ведет к увеличению продаж больших фирм посредством рыночной экспансии, образовавшейся вытеснением мелких фирм, работающих в рамках монополистической конкуренции, с рынка. Более того, общественное благосостояние увеличивается, благодаря стимулирующему конкуренцию эффекту, связанному с уменьшением разнообразия продуктов из-за входа больших фирм.
We modify Paul Krugman’s (1991, J. Polit. Econ 9(3), 483-99) ‘Core-Periphery’ model by replacing the traditional competitive sector by a monopolistically competitive one. We show that the structure of spatial equilibria remains the same as in the original model. This result continues to hold true under Cournot or Bertrand oligopolistic competition with free entry in the traditional sector. The key factor that explains why the nature of competition in the traditional sector does not matter for the spatial equilibria is constant expenditure shares - due to nested Cobb-Douglas and CES preferences - which imply that trade in the traditional sector is independent from its sectoral characteristics.
Larger cities typically give rise to two opposite effects: tougher competition among firms and higher production costs. Using an urban model with substitutability of production factors and pro-competitive effects, I study product market responses to an increase in city population, land-use regulations, and commuting costs. I show that those responses depend on the land intensity in production. If the input share of land is low, a larger city attracts more firms setting lower prices, whereas for an intermediate land share, city expansion increases both the mass of firms and product prices. For a high land share, the mass of firms decreases with city size while product price increases. Softer land-use regulations and/or lower commuting costs reinforce pro-competitive effects, making city residents better-off via lower product prices and broader diversity.
В статье рассматривается концентрация страхового рынка в России, еe влияние на состояние страхования в стране и регионах. Проанализированы показатели концентрации страхового рынка, в том числе по видам страхования, уточнены факторы их изменения в период 2014–2018 гг. Даны прогнозные оценки концентрации страхового бизнеса на основе выявленных тенденций.
This paper introduces the evolving understanding and conceptualization of innovation process models. We categorize the different approaches to understand and model innovation processes into two types. First, the so-called innovation management approach focuses on the evolution of corporate innovation management strategies in different social and economic environments. The second type is the conceptual approach which analyses the evolution of innovation models themselves as well as the models’ theoretical backgrounds and requirements. The focus in this second approach is the advantages and disadvantages of different innovation models in how far they can describe the reality of innovation processes. The paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages as well as the potential and limitations of the approaches. It also proposes potential future developments of innovation models as well as the analysis of the driving forces that underlie the evolution of innovation models. The article concludes that the predominant open innovation paradigm requires rethinking and further development towards an ‘active innovation’ paradigm.
The topic of organizational change became quite popular in recent publications of researchers and practitioners all over the world. This interest can be explained by growing market turbulence and highly dynamic development of technologies that dramatically change landscapes of particular industries. Companies that fail to change in accordance with those new trends, or cannot foresee those trends and change before they become real, are condemned to quick death. Most academic publications in this area are focused on the process and mechanisms of conducting changes in organizations, and in many cases they proceed from several simplifications related to availability of personnel of certain qualification and irreversible nature of particular changes. In this regard, many authors who try to simulate the process of organizational change under ideal conditions of the theory, reach a deadlock in practical situations when the process of implementing changes cannot even be started because it is not possible to recruit specialists of required qualifications and skills. In many cases because of the time pressure it is not even possible to provide existing specialists with additional training. Thus, it is easy to see that while simplifications cannot be implemented, and indeed these are 90% of cases of real businesses, the value of theoretical advancements in the field of practical organizational change is decreased. All this leads to the situation when theorists and practitioners exist in parallel worlds and are quite skeptical about each other’s activity. Authors of the paper for a number of years combine research and academic activity with practical managerial work on Russian plants. The paper examines particular specifics and conditions of conducting necessary changes in organizations which are “not equipped” with employees of needed qualification and there are limited opportunities to improve the situation because of the tight schedule of changes. Results of research conducted by authors will be essential, first of all, for small and medium businesses that function under considerable limitations of internal and external organizational resources.
The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 has changed the landscape for monetary policy. Many central banks in developed economies had to employ various unconventional policy tools to overcome a liquidity trap. These included large-scale asset purchase programs, forward guidance and negative interest rate policies. While recently, some central banks were able to return to conventional monetary policy, for many countries the effectiveness of unconventional policies remains an issue. In this paper we assess diverse practices of unconventional monetary policy with a particular focus on expectations and time consistency. The principal aspect of successful policy in terms of overcoming a liquidity trap is the confidence that interest rates will remain low for a prolonged period. However, forming such expectations faces the problem of time inconsistency of optimal policy. We discuss some directions to solve this problem.
Imprinting theory suggests that founding conditions are ‘stamped’ on organizations, and these imprinted routines often resist change. In contrast, strategic choice theory suggests that the firm can overcome organizational inertia and deliberately choose its future. Both theories offer dramatically different explanations behind an organization's capacity for change. IPO firms provide a unique context for exploring how imprinting forces interact with strategic choice factors to address organizational capacity for change as a firm moves from private to public firm status. Juxtaposing imprinting and strategic choice perspectives, we employ fuzzy set analysis to examine the multi-level determinants of organizational capacity for change. Our cross-national data reveal three effective configurations of organizational capacity for change within IPOs, and two ineffective configurations. Our results suggest that the antecedents of organizational capacity for change in entrepreneurial threshold firms are non-linear, interdependent, and equifinal.