This article offers a historical analysis of different attitudes toward Nestorius of Constantinople which became 'traditional' and which formed opposing tendencies in various branches of Christianity. The main focus of the article is on the origins of veneration of Nestorius in the East-Syriac tradition as well as on the frequent attempts of those who condemn Nestorius to erase his name from the books of the Church of the East.
本文章以对聂斯脱利不同的态度为研究对象。随着时间所有的态度成了“传统的”, 而在不同的基督教的宗派里形成了互相对立的立场。文章关注聂斯脱利在东方亚述教会里的所给予的尊敬、经常责备聂斯脱利的人士 怎样试图在东方亚述教会的课文上取消他的名字的问题。
In late 20th century D. Chalmers came to the conclusion that consciousness is redundant in relation to the brain functioning and he called it the hard problem of consciousness. In this article a fusion of existentialism and quantum theories of consciousness will be proposed, with the result being a neurophenomenological theory of consciousness Quantum brain and Nothingness. An important base for the paper is the idea of direct connection between the hard problem of consciousness and the problem of free will that allows us to build a “bridge” between existential philosophy and the hard problem of consciousness. The main ideas of neurophenomenological theory of consciousness will contain the following: At present moment brain can be simultaneously in multiple states, because of the significant quantum effects that influencing neuron impulses. From the third person’s perspective the quantum brain looks like physical object, but in reality (i.e. “from the inside”, “brain for brain” or brain as “thing-in-itself”) quantum brain is consciousness. It means that the conscious and quantum neuronal processes are the same “something” that can be observed both from inside and from outside. Because of that consciousness exists simultaneously in multiple states. Further free “i” in the continuously processes of selection of one of the possible state of consciousness and automatically chooses one of the possible state of the quantum brain, causing collapse of its wave function as a result. Furthermore, consciousness is “quantum brain for quantum brain” and “i” that is in the continuous process of collapsing of brain’s wave function. Quantum states of brain are pressuring “i” requiring its own realization. This “pressure” and particular quantum states of the brain are represented as multitude of qualia for “i”. As a result, consciousness is emergent interaction of “i” and quantum states of the brain.
The process of globalization undoubtedly contributes to the change and reduction of the scope of state sovereign powers. The list of threats to state sovereignty often includes global financial flows, multinational corporations, global media empires, and the Internet etc. At the same time (note that this point is debated surprisingly little and occasionally), since the end of World War II, increasingly more states have been willingly and consciously limiting their sovereign rights. And what is extremely important, many countries quite often give away some of their sovereign powers voluntarily. In the article, it is argued that the factor of voluntariness in reducing one's own authority is, no doubt, the most important in understanding the future of the state.
There are several reasons for such voluntariness and ‘altruism’, including the fact that such a restriction becomes profitable, as in return the countries expect to gain quite real advantages especially as members of regional and interregional unions. The transformation of sovereignty proceeds somehow almost in all countries. However, it is more characteristic of Western countries.
В статье анализируются взгляды Н. А. Бердяева (1874-1948) на духовные истоки русской революции 1917 г. Философ полагал, что такими истоками явились «бесы» революции, живущие в «русском национальном духе», раскрытые и пробужденные творчеством русских классиков художественной литературы – Н. Гоголя, Ф. Достоевского и Л. Толстого. Главной причиной, по которой эти «бесы» овладели русским национальным сознанием, стало крушение оснований жизни, ложная ориентация этого сознания на насильственное установление социального строя, полагавшегося воплощением морали равенства и справедливого распределения благ, но лишенного религиозно-метафизической основы. Проводится сопоставление взглядов Бердяева с современными реалиями России и поиском путей разрешения глубоких социально-политических и нравственных противоречий, свойственных этим реалиям.
В статье обсуждается современная концепция энактивного познания с точки зрения понятий нелинейной динамики и синергетики. Рассматривается вклад Франсиско Варелы и его предшественников в развитие этой концепции. Показывается, что процессы восприятия и мышления связаны с «архитектурой» человеческого тела, а нелинейные циклические связи между субъектом познания и миром, конструируемым им, может быть названа, выражаясь метафорическим языком, нелинейной сетью познания. Познание является автопоэтической активностью, поскольку она направлена на поиск элементов, которые упущены и на достраивание целостных структур знания.
The modern theory of complexity is one of the most promising tool to understand uncertain, full of sudden changes, and complex world we live in. Due to rapid development of this theory, considerable changes occur in the concept net with the help of which we comprehend the world and build our own activity. Whereas at the beginning of the 20th century, natural sciences, by picking up the general spirit of Einstein’s theory of relativity, consider geometrization as an ideal, i.e. try to represent time and force interactions through space and the changes of its properties, nowadays, at the beginning of the 21st century, time turns to be in the focus of attention. It turns to be possible to represent space through time, because the theory of complexity shows that historical and evolutionary stages of development of a complex structure can be found now, in its present spatial configuration. A whole series of paradoxical notions, such as “the influence of the future upon the present”, a “possibility of touching of a rather remote future today”, “availability of the past and the future now, in praesenti”, “irreversibility and elements of reversibility in the course of evolutionary processes in time”, “discrete unites, quanta of time”, appear in the theory of complexity.
In reference to three competing negative principles of freedom (non-frustration, non-interference, and non-domination), Philip Pettit recently presented an argument in favor of the absolute prioritization of non-domination. I refute the absolute priority claim on both analytical and contextual grounds and prove that none of these principles is superior to the others. The contextual analysis shows that partial priority claims are unsuitable for the respective historical and theoretical contexts. The formal analysis demonstrates that the absolute priority claim is logically deficient. Rehabilitation of the non-frustration principle entails that more attention should be paid to human individuality. Additionally, my findings give rise to new theoretical conditions whereby we must make sense of the plurality of liberty principles. I suggest that we are bound to return to the pre-Berlinian state of affairs.
The note is devoted to an issue of increasing and transforming nostalgic syndrome in Russian mass movies of the 2000s, especially We Are from the Future (film dylogy 2006-2008) and The Black Lightning (2009). These acse-studies are chosen because of the very intensive work of sub-conscious mechanisms of trauma, symbolic therapy and hyper-compensation. Almost opposite in a question of genre and expressive means both films are very similar in their handle with the 'sacred past', its icons and fetiches.