This article analyzes grass-root politics in the Russian Civil War, challenging the traditional assumption that the Bolsheviks with their program of radical revolutionary change enjoyed greater popularity than their White adversaries. On the example of the Northern region, it demonstrates that the local «counter-revolutionary» government commanded considerable sympathies of the provincial population. This popularity was based on the government's ability to supply the population of this non-agricultural province with imported grain, to provide military protection and arms for self-defense. Ultimately, the article strives to explain the outcome of the Civil War not by conflicting ideologies and policies, but by practical circumstances and local factors that on a grass-root level conditioned changing political loyalties.
В статье исследуются причины невозможности формирования целостной евразийской юриспруденции в 1920-1930. Для достижения данной цели изучаются институциональные и идейные предпосылки создания «евразийской» правовой школы. Выявляется роль Евразийского движения и Русского юридического факультета г. Праги как возможных институциональных плацдармов этой научной школы. Обозначаются ключевые идейные противоречия между правовыми взглядами евразийцев, обусловленные метаправовыми основаниями их подходов к праву – феноменологическим истоком работ Н.Н. Алексеева, теорией «всеединства» в творчестве Л.П. Карсавина, позитивистским подходом в трудах Н.А. Дунаева. Анализ опубликованных сборников евразийцев и ряда неопубликованных архивных материалов показывает, что в конкретных условиях того времени создание данной научной школы было невозможно.
The article compares the well-known socially-oriented interpretations of the phenomenon of memory with the most interesting new elaborations by Russian scholars in philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and cultural studies. It is shown that the conceptualisations of memory aiming to overcome the dichotomy of individual and super-individual discover the path to synthesis in history.
The paper focuses on the four “pedagogical” novels by writer and journalist Frida Vigdorova, mostly known for her records of the Joseph Brodsky’s trial of 1964. These novels written in 1949–1958, as well as some of her journalistic publications of the 1950s, made her one of the most influential publicists who wrote on the problems of school and schoolchildren. The article traces Vigdorova’s key ideas and literary techniques back to the second half of 1940s, when she wrote her first novels, first and foremost My Class (1949). Although Vigdorova was regarded as a follower of Anton Makarenko, the famous pedagogue of the 1920s and the 1930s, one may find a significant shift in her interpretation of his theory. The main difference consists in her emphasis on the idea of the “individual approach” to each child, by contrast to the earlier attention to the issues of the collective. This idea is represented as a strong moral demand on every teacher or educator. The author shows that this idea was “re-invented” in the late 1940s by the officials of the ministry of education and pedagogical publicists in order to respond to a strong pressure of the pedagogical corps that had to face severe problems that emerged as direct social effects of WWII and were exacerbated by the banning of all psychological approaches to children after 1936. The “individual approach” becomes not only an ideological, but also a literary basis of all Vigdorova’s novels, a structural principle of her narratives.
The author examines specific features of the activity of Russian Empire consulates in Mongolia which analyzed the political and military situation at the time. The Russian Foreign Ministry offices’ work is analyzed in observing China’s policy toward Outer Mongolia and neighboring regions. The article also dwells on Russian diplomatic activity to diminish Japan’s influence in Mongolia and discloses its mediatory role in solving the “Tibet problem.”
A new analysis of the so-called Inscription on the Chalice of Solomon (known mostly from literary documents in Slavonic) is based on the totality of the available sources, including a recently published (2000) Greek recension and recently found (2013) but unpublished two Latin ones. It is argued that the text was written in Hebrew in the late Second Temple period, being therefore roughly contemporaneous to the Damascus Document and some other Dead Sea Scrolls and representing a similar but different liturgy and theology. The original liturgical setting of the chalice as a liturgical utensil is some kind of new wine festival.
На рубеже XIX–XX веков одной из ключевых проблем, обсуждавшихся европейскими архитекторами, стал вопрос о развитии города. Зодчих преследовал страх разрастающегося зловещего Метрополиса — подавляющего человека, делающего жизнь в городе невыносимой, разрушающего традиционные ценности и человеческие взаимоотношения. Необходимость расчистить городское пространство казалась главной задачей архитектуры, а вместе с ней были подняты вопросы расширения исторических городов и строительства жилья для социально незащищенных горожан. В числе предложений была сформулирована концепция «instauratio urbis» (повторение, восстановление города) — традиционалистское представление, что следует восстанавливать культурное значение архитектуры как репозитория исторического опыта
The article addresses gendered power asymmetries within indigenous communities of early Soviet Siberia and their shifts during the transitional period between the Russian Empire and the totalitarian Soviet state. The concept of entangled relational spaces is the main analytical tool of this article. Seeking to overcome identity-based essentialisms, the article deconstructs gender identity and demonstrates how it can be articulated and interpreted in different relational spaces. It extends the argument that oppressions are produced by various social categories (intersectionality) by adding that a single social category may beget various forms of oppression and that heterogeneous gender asymmetries are produced and manifested across different relational spaces. Evidence deriving from predominantly indigenous sources authored by women enabled the discussion of gendered power asymmetries in economic, legal, and political spaces produced by corresponding relations. Economic and demographic crises, which the indigenous peoples of Siberia endured in the 1910s–1920s, reduced gendered power asymmetries in economic spaces making women less dependent on men. On women's initiative the shifts then spread to legal spaces and, with the support of the Bolshevik government, affected political spaces. These shifts were closely connected to the early Soviet attempts at dialog with indigenous people, decolonizing Siberia and liberating indigenous women, and gave way to instrumental policies.
Публикация посвящена Исабель де Мадариага - известному исследователю истории России XVIII века.