Our aim is to propose a non-referential semantics for the principle of logical charity: neither logical absolutism (one logic, one way of thinking), nor logical relativism (several logics, several ways of thinking) afford an adequate conceptual framework to interpret the meaning of any speech act. But neither of them is totally wrong, either. The point is to see to what extent each of these views is partly right, thus leading to a more consensual but seemingly paradoxical ‘relative principle of charity’. After recalling the theoretical background of logical charity, we suggest a fourvalued logic of acceptance and rejection (hereafter: AR4) to extend the classical view of charity; then we explain how such a non-referential semantics does justice both to the initial champions of logical charity and their opponents. While endorsing coherence as a precondition for rationality, we argue that such a criterion does not entail that classical logic is a necessary conceptual scheme to interpret the others’ beliefs. A better application of charity should take account of the questions implicitly asked by a statement; we proceed in this way by preferring Quine’s verdict-functions to his logical truth-functions while emphasizing upon the varying degrees of strength of a statement.
Victor Eremita proposes that the reader understand parts I and II of Either/Or as parties in a dialogue; most readers in fact view II as a devastating reply to I. I suggest that part I be read as a reaction or follow-up to Kierkegaard’s dissertation. Much of part I presents reflective characters who are aware of their freedom but reluctant or unable to adopt the ethical life. The modern Antigone and the Silhouettes are sisters of Alcibiades-failed students of Socrates. I articulate and defend their modes of loving, which are significantly different from Don Giovanni’s and Johannes the Seducer’s purely aesthetic approaches to love. Such feminine love, I argue, dwells in the disputed territory between passion and action, substance and freedom, the aesthetic and the ethical. Antigone’s love is a passion she both suffers and tries to appropriate. The Silhouettes’ devotion to their beloved makes them dependent on him. I defend this dependence even though it is undoubtedly a form of despair. By appealing to Sartre’s account of love, I argue moreover that this love involves a recognition and appraisal of the beloved absent in the love exemplified by Fear and Trembling’s knight of infinite resignation.
The paper discusses the philosophical underpinnings of the ideas of the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov and the philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin. Compared mostly with regard to the Dostoevskian novel, these two authors prove to be connected by a more complex intellectual relationship, as the commentators of Bakhtin’s Collected Works have demonstrated. The present paper continues this broad-context discussion by revealing the principal difference between Ivanov’s and Bakhtin’s worldviews as it stems from the different orders of dependence of love and volition. The framework for comparison is provided by Max Scheler’s essay ‘Love and Cognition’. The primacy of the will causes constant becoming of the human subject in Ivanov’s poetic universe, mostly presented as self-surpassing. The primacy of love in Bakhtin’s philosophy of the deed results in the ‘becoming’ of the other, primarily in the form of the growing value of the beloved, rather than in the form of his or her internal existential transformation.
In this paper, we develop a new tolerance-based Branch and Bound algorithm for solving NP-hard problems. In particular, we consider the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP), an NP-hard problem with large practical relevance. The main algorithmic contribution is our lower bounding strategy that uses the expected costs of including arcs in the solution to the assignment problem relaxation of the ATSP, the so-called lower tolerance values. The computation of the lower bound requires the calculation of a large set of lower tolerances. We apply and adapt a finding from that makes it possible to compute all lower tolerance values efficiently. Computational results show that our Branch and Bound algorithm exhibits very good performance in comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms, in particular for difficult clustered ATSP instances.
We show that from the spectra of the Uq(sl(2)) symmetric XXZ spin-1/2 finite quantum chain at = −1/2 (q = ei/3) one can obtain the spectra of certain XXZ quantum chains with diagonal and non-diagonal boundary conditions. Similar observations are made for = 0 (q = ei/2). In the finite-size scaling limit the relations among the various spectra are the result of identities satisfied by known character functions. For the finite chains the origin of the remarkable spectral identities can be found in the representation theory of one and two boundaries Temperley-Lieb algebras at exceptional points. Inspired by these observations we have discovered other spectral identities between chains with different boundary conditions.
The emergence of asceticism as a religious and social phenomenon of the Early Christianity has long been a matter exclusively for religious historians . Its origin has been traced back to the Essenes fasting or rig-orist approach of some apocryphal texts. Syriac asceticism is a special case but it was subjected to the same analysis. It has developed from practice of certain hermits into a highly theoretical discipline based on biblical and antique anthropology and evolved in close relation to dif-ferent models, theological as well as social and behavioral. Scholarly and religious interpretations of asceticism – although different in posi-tioning and purpose – were until very recently from a theological or his-torical viewpoint. Culturology and sociology provided important dimen-sions for the analysis. The article proposes to analyse approaches of Syriac medicine in comparison with the ascetic expressions od one of the most famous Eastern Syrac Ascetic writers Ishaq of Nineveh.
Interview with Podoroga on the history and stage of the Soviet Marxism
В статье рассказывается об экспедиции менеджеров из постсоветских государств в Западную Африку (Бенин, Того и Гану), проведенной в октябре – ноябре 2012 г. Институтом Африки РАН и научно-консалтинговой группой «ДиБиЭй-концепт» под руководством ученых-авторов статьи. Экспедиция имела одновременно обучающий и исследовательский характер: погружаясь в миры африканских культур, ее участники искали и находили в них параллели с собственным профессиональным и жизненным опытом, призванные помочь их дальнейшему карьерному и личностному росту. В том, какие основные «открытия» сделали для себя эти образованные, успешные, но впервые побывавшие в Африке люди, чем оказалась важна для них Африка, по мнению авторов статьи, содержится много поучительного относительно значимости культур народов этого континента в общем контексте современной мировой культуры.
Рецензия на книгу Шона Макклауда, посвященную проблеме экзорцизма в американском харизматическом движении третьей волны.