Social influence is an important factor in learning and decision-making. We estimate peer influence on student choice of specialization using data on undergraduate students of a Russian university. Information about individual social ties has been gathered from a questionnaire survey. We show that specialization choice is significantly influenced by friends as well as by study partners. The strongest effect is produced by friends who are study partners and those who have similar academic achievements. Reciprocal friendship ties have a stronger influence on the choice than nonreciprocal ones. Also, the decision is affected by classmates with similar academic achievement. The results allow us to better understand the mechanisms of peer effects in the specialization choice.
Предложен новый метод оценки надежности классификации, основанный на различимости класса модели.
Рецензия на книгу China 3.0 Марка Леонарда.
This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces distortions, but the convergence is slow. Housing market rigidities, inadequate urban infrastructure, and inconsistent government policies prevent people from moving to the largest cities.
Tbilisi, a city of over a million, is the national capital of Georgia. Although little explored in urban studies, the city epitomizes a fascinating assemblage of processes that can illuminate the interplay of geopolitics, political choices, globalization discourses, histories, and urban contestations in shaping urban transformations. Tbilisi's strategic location in the South Caucasus, at the juncture of major historical empires and religions in Eurasia, has ensured its turbulent history and a polyphony of cultural influences. Following Georgia's independence in 1991, Tbilisi found itself as the pivot of Georgian nation-building. Transition to a market economy also exposed the city to economic hardship, ethnical homogenization, and the informalization of the urban environment. The economic recovery since the early 2000s has activated urban regeneration. Georgia's government has recently promoted flagship urban development projects in pursuit of making Tbilisi as a modern globalizing metropolis. This has brought contradictions, such as undermining the city's heritage, contributing to socio-spatial polarization, and deteriorating the city's public spaces. The elitist processes of decision-making and a lack of a consistent urban policy and planning regimes are argued to be among major impediments for a more sustainable development of this city.
Customer focus and communications with clients have been in the center of the modern quality management for a long time. Whilst much has been written about qualitative aspects of client communication in the quality management systems only few researchers attempted to investigate empirically and quantitatively the potential interplay between client communication and quality. This article examines the possible correlation between the intensity of communications with clients at different stages of the turnkey furniture and interior projects, on one hand, and the client satisfaction with quality and non-quality costs, on the other hand. The findings indicate that many client interaction frequency metrics correlate with the client quality satisfaction and non-quality costs. Moreover, it can be stated with some caution that the high frequency of client interaction at the early stage of the project has a positive impact on the quality satisfaction and non-quality costs. Based on the findings, this study discusses managerial implications concerning the importance of the early involvement of the client and intense communications with the project team.
A comprehensive review of the climate change mitigation and low carbon development issues in the Northeast Asia, including Russia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea and DPR of Korea. The countries face an outstanding challenge of using their huge reserves of fossil fuels while committing to prevent global warming by over 2 degree Celsius. Their resources of renewable energy, technological potential and investment resources can help to deeply decarbonize their economies by 2050, and the international cooperation projects in the region can speed up this process.
Abstract Clustering cities based on their socio-economic development in long time period is an important issue and may be used in many ways, e.g., in strategic regional planning. In this paper we continue our recent study where cumulative attribute for each year replaces nine other attributes, called ’vector of dynamics’. In our previous paper some original ranking method was proposed. Using the same data set, here we try out some classical clustering models such as Minimum sum of squares and Harmonic means clustering. Results for the two last models are obtained using Variable neighborhood search based heuristics. A comparative study among old and new results on 120 Russian large cities are provided and analyzed.
There is broad consensus that economic development and society welfare correlate with the effectiveness and efficiency of countries’ science, technology, and innovation infrastructure. There is a broad range of actors active in all fields with diverging ambitions, missions, and aims striving for scientific, technological, and innovation excellence. Still one actor alone faces severe challenges in the respective global competition which is why increasingly clusters are formed and quipped with professional management. This raises the question if knowledge diffusion channels function more effective and efficient in organically grown self-organized channels or if targeted public policy intervention is needed to enhance these channels by means of attached cluster management. The article discusses the major conceptual features of cluster management and spillovers and the resulting implications for cluster management activities.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.
В 2006 году в российском антимонопольном законодательстве появилась норма о коллективном доминировании. С помощью нее антимонопольный орган предпринял очередную попытку решения проблемы выявления и доказывания параллельного поведения компаний на концентрированных рынках. Среди экспертов были как сторонники, так и противники этой нормы. В данной статье рассмотрена практика применения нормы о коллективном доминировании с момента ее принятия по сегодняшний день. Особое внимание уделяется крупнейшим делам по нефтяным компаниям. В работе анализируются ограничения и сложности применения данной нормы, а также рассматриваются альтернативные способы преследования компаний за поведение, ограничивающего конкуренцию, на концентрированных рынках.
Collective Management of Residential Housing in Russia: The Importance of Being Social Homeowners associations (HOAs) implement collective management in residential housing. We assess the performance of such associations in Russia by using the stochastic frontier technique. Cultural traits enabling tenants to make proper use of the HOA decision-making procedures are essential for resolving the collective action problem and ensure accountability of governing bodies and outside contractors. Such “technical civic competence” has a stronger impact on HOA performance than more conventional forms of social capital which rise in their significance when HOA governance breaks down and informal grassroots alternatives are mobilized instead. Massive and indiscriminate “supplyled” introduction of collective management in residential housing without matching cultural and institutional prerequisites could be counterproductive. Flexibility, freedom of choice, and market development are required to avert the failures of HOAs commonly observed in Russia.
The study examines whether the positive relationship, observed in previous study, between self-efficacy and work engagement is observed also at the collective level, between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. Moreover, the moderating role of specific collective organizational efficacy is analysed. A questionnaire, administered to 358 employees from 13 Italian companies of the Food & Beverage sector, included three scales: 1) general collective organizational efficacy scale (Bohn, 2010); 2) specific collective organizational efficacy in internationalization, developed for the present study, and 3) collective work engagement scale. Results showed a positive relationship between collective organizational efficacy and collective work engagement. Specific collective organizational efficacy moderates the effect only for the vigor and absorption dimensions of collective work engagement, suggesting that employees are engaged in their job when they perceive that the organization is very effective, or ineffective, in general and in a specific task. The practical implications of the results of the present study are discussed.