В статье рассматриваются различные ретроспективные связи между scientia generalis Лейбница и философской, риторической и энциклопедической традициями Возрождения и раннего Нового времени. Особое внимание уделяется характеристике влияния «Метафизики» Аристотеля на формирование концепций универсальной науки в 17 веке
In its anniversary 40 years the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) has published 453 documents that have framed the general bank (and particularly risk) supervision and regulation worldwide. The objective of the paper is to investigate the main stages of BCBS regulation evolution, key facts related to bank and risk regulation development process and to summarize the areas that were touched by the BCBS regulation including credit, market, operational and liquidity risks; risk and capital aggregation; corporate governance, recommendations for central banks and information disclosure by commercial banks. The paper should be viewed as a natural continuation of the Professor Goodhart’s 2011 book on BCBS history with two core distinctive features. Whereas Professor Goodhart’s book focuses on the early history of 1974-1997 and is based on review of BCBS internal archives, the current paper covers whole history of 1974-2014 and is based on the documents and comments publicly available on the website of the Basel Committee. Concluding remarks present recommendations to improve existing bank and risk regulation to be first adopted by the Basel Committee.
The article aims at exploring the unique private letters of a St Petersburg German prostitute Therese Grunwaldt to famous radical critic Nikolai Dobroliubov, 1858-1860. On the basis of these documents and other archive materials from Russian and Estonian archives, the author reconstructs Grunwaldt’s dramatic biography and contextualizes her life-trajectory. This case demonstrates how such data can contribute to the investigation of the private life of marginal people and prostitutes in particular. The methodological framework of the study comprises socio-cultural contextualization, exploration of Grunwaldt’s private life, study of her self-presentation and emotional patterns in her letters, comparative perspective (another, French, prostitute whose letters survived in Dobroliubov’s archive), and attempt to consider the discursive dimension of the issue. Such broad perspective enables to demonstrate that Grunwaldt’s case was not typical for a Russian prostitute of the 1850s.
В статье прослеживается эволюция образа Яна Гуса и гуситов в Российской империи, Советском Союзе и постосветской России.
This article analyzes grass-root politics in the Russian Civil War, challenging the traditional assumption that the Bolsheviks with their program of radical revolutionary change enjoyed greater popularity than their White adversaries. On the example of the Northern region, it demonstrates that the local «counter-revolutionary» government commanded considerable sympathies of the provincial population. This popularity was based on the government's ability to supply the population of this non-agricultural province with imported grain, to provide military protection and arms for self-defense. Ultimately, the article strives to explain the outcome of the Civil War not by conflicting ideologies and policies, but by practical circumstances and local factors that on a grass-root level conditioned changing political loyalties.
В статье исследуются причины невозможности формирования целостной евразийской юриспруденции в 1920-1930. Для достижения данной цели изучаются институциональные и идейные предпосылки создания «евразийской» правовой школы. Выявляется роль Евразийского движения и Русского юридического факультета г. Праги как возможных институциональных плацдармов этой научной школы. Обозначаются ключевые идейные противоречия между правовыми взглядами евразийцев, обусловленные метаправовыми основаниями их подходов к праву – феноменологическим истоком работ Н.Н. Алексеева, теорией «всеединства» в творчестве Л.П. Карсавина, позитивистским подходом в трудах Н.А. Дунаева. Анализ опубликованных сборников евразийцев и ряда неопубликованных архивных материалов показывает, что в конкретных условиях того времени создание данной научной школы было невозможно.
The article compares the well-known socially-oriented interpretations of the phenomenon of memory with the most interesting new elaborations by Russian scholars in philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and cultural studies. It is shown that the conceptualisations of memory aiming to overcome the dichotomy of individual and super-individual discover the path to synthesis in history.
The paper focuses on the four “pedagogical” novels by writer and journalist Frida Vigdorova, mostly known for her records of the Joseph Brodsky’s trial of 1964. These novels written in 1949–1958, as well as some of her journalistic publications of the 1950s, made her one of the most influential publicists who wrote on the problems of school and schoolchildren. The article traces Vigdorova’s key ideas and literary techniques back to the second half of 1940s, when she wrote her first novels, first and foremost My Class (1949). Although Vigdorova was regarded as a follower of Anton Makarenko, the famous pedagogue of the 1920s and the 1930s, one may find a significant shift in her interpretation of his theory. The main difference consists in her emphasis on the idea of the “individual approach” to each child, by contrast to the earlier attention to the issues of the collective. This idea is represented as a strong moral demand on every teacher or educator. The author shows that this idea was “re-invented” in the late 1940s by the officials of the ministry of education and pedagogical publicists in order to respond to a strong pressure of the pedagogical corps that had to face severe problems that emerged as direct social effects of WWII and were exacerbated by the banning of all psychological approaches to children after 1936. The “individual approach” becomes not only an ideological, but also a literary basis of all Vigdorova’s novels, a structural principle of her narratives.