Background: Since May 2004, ten Central and East European (CEE) countries have joined the European Union. While HIV rates remain low among men who have sex with men (MSM) in CEE countries, there is no research on the sexual behaviour of CEE MSM in the UK.
Methods: CEE MSM living in the UK (n=691) were recruited for an online questionnaire via two popular MSM websites.
Results: The majority of men had arrived in the UK since May 2004. A previous STI diagnosis was reported by 30.7% and 4.8% reported being HIV-positive, the majority diagnosed in the UK. Unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner of unknown or discordant HIV status was reported by 22.8%. Men who had been in the UK for longer (>5 years vs <1 year) reported more partners in the past five years (67.2% vs 50.4% had >10 partners, p<0.001) and were less likely to report their most recent partner was from their home country (14.9% vs 33.6%, p<0.001). Among migrant CEE MSM living in London, 15.4% had been paid for sex in the UK and 41.5% had taken recreational drugs in the past year.
Conclusion: CEE MSM in the UK are at risk for acquisition and transmission of STIs and HIV through UAI with non-concordant casual partners. Sexual mixing with men from other countries, commercial sex and increased partner numbers may introduce additional risk. This has important implications for cross-border transmission of infections between the UK and CEE countries. peer-00594792
The article suggests concept of chain generalized exchange proposed by Ekeh (1974) as a central concept underlying nonprofit marketing. Most studies and research perspectives are based on controversial concept of complex exchange (Bagozzi,1975) to be a central concept for nonprofit marketing. Article discusses limitations of complex exchange concept and offers chain generalized exchange to be a central concept of nonprofit marketing.
Urban infrastructure in Russia was heavily subsidized by the state during the socialist period. The market economy is bringing new participants, which could have a significant impact on collective consumption institutions.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the challenges experienced by Russian research and development (R&D) organisations in international technology collaboration in the global innovation arena.
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 33 Russian R&D organisations were selected from a sample of 138 potential participating organisations from the Central, Nord-Western and Volga Federal Districts of Russia to take part in a qualitative interview study. Organisations were selected based on their responses to a questionnaire which measured the extent and nature of their experience in international technology collaborations. Participants were interviewed about their experiences of engaging in international technology collaboration under two different modes of collaboration: short term customer-supplier relationships vs longer-term strategic alliances. The semi-structured interviews focused on 15 different issues which had been derived from the previously published literature on international technology collaboration and a thematic analysis was conducted on the resultant data.
Findings – The analysis indicates which of the issues reported as problematic in the literature were pertinent to the Russian organisations in the sample under each mode of collaboration. The findings also provide some evidence that Russian R&D organisations have made progress in the transition from the command to the market economy and are adjusting to the new environment, albeit gradually in some cases.
Research limitations/implications – The paper presents interpretive, qualitative findings, which were analysed from a Russian perspective in three out of seven Federal Districts of Russia. The research sample does not include non-Russian counterparts and the analysis is restricted to those variables which have previously been identified as exerting an influence over international technology collaborations.
Practical implications – The study reveals a broad range of insights into the types of issues which warrant close managerial attention from both Russian managers and their international partners in engaging in international technology collaborations with contemporary Russian R&D organisations.
Originality/value – The research suggests that different sets of challenges emerge for organizations engaged in different modes of international collaboration and provides insight into the unique context of Russia, challenging some of the previously published analyses of the influence of Russian business and managerial practices on the innovativeness of contemporary Russian organisations.
The success of societal transformation in Russia depends on the ingenuity of Russian managers to link the legacy of the communist regime and the national patterns of industrial organization with the prerequisites of a modern economy. This article reports on a study of management in organizational transformation for 20 privatized industrial companies in Russia and describes the changes in their control structures and strategies. Organizational and economic factors determining the establishing of specific control arrangements and their impact on business reengineering are analyzed by synthesis of surveys and case studies. Implications for western partners and suggestions for further research are drawn.
In December 2015, nearly 200 countries reached a historic agreement in Paris to limit greenhouse gas emissions in hopes of curbing global warming. Law360's Expert Analysis special series looks at the impact the agreement will have on policies in various regions and countries.
Переходный период привычно представлять как однонаправленный процесс: от плана к рынку, от общественного к частному, от коллективного к индивидуальному. В данной работе рассмотрен процесс «ре-перехода» избыточной маркетизации к новым формам государственного управления в здравоохранении КНР. Такой процесс начался в 2002 году и включал в себя попытки вновь сделать предоставление медико-санитарных услуг государственно-финансируемой отраслью. «Ре-переход» представлен как процесс развития четырех независимых систем страхового охвата населения и их послудующая интеграция в общую систему медицинского страхования в 2009 г.