This research utilizes a compensating differential framework to measure the social benefits of minor league baseball teams. Consistent with findings at the major league level, individual housing observations from 138 metropolitan areas between 1993 and 2005 show that affiliated teams are associated with a significant 5.7% increase in rents in mid-sized markets ranging from 0.4 to 1.4 million people. On the other hand, independent teams and stadiums are associated with insignificant effects on rents. The positive effect of affiliated minor league teams suggests they are a valuable urban amenity that can contribute to local quality of life. (JEL H23, H41, H71, R50, and L83)
В строке 27.15 "Нового Апулея" (опубликованного в 2016 г. Джастином Стовером как III книга апулеевского De Platone латинского пересказа ряда диалогов Платона) предлагается вместо рукописного ordinem queri и конъектуры Стовера ordine cieri читать ordine moueri.
e present a heuristic control theory model that describes smoking under restricted and unrestricted access to cigarettes. The model is based on the allostasis theory and uses a formal representation of a multiscale opponent process. The model simulates smoking behavior of an individual and produces both short-term (“loading up” after not smoking for a while) and long-term smoking patterns (e.g., gradual transition from a few cigarettes to one pack a day). By introducing a formal representation of withdrawal- and craving-like processes, the model produces gradual increases over time in withdrawal- and craving-like signals associated with abstinence and shows that after 3 months of abstinence, craving disappears. The model was programmed as a computer application allowing users to select simulation scenarios. The application links images of brain regions that are activated during the binge/intoxication, withdrawal, or craving with corresponding simulated states. The model was calibrated to represent smoking patterns described in peer-reviewed literature; however, it is generic enough to be adapted to other drugs, including cocaine and opioids. Although the model does not mechanistically describe specific neurobiological processes, it can be useful in prevention and treatment practices as an illustration of drug-using behaviors and expected dynamics of withdrawal and craving during abstinence.
We consider two-person zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information, or BWR-games, given by a digraph (Formula presented.), with local rewards (Formula presented.), and three types of positions: black (Formula presented.), white (Formula presented.), and random (Formula presented.) forming a partition of V. It is a long-standing open question whether a polynomial time algorithm for BWR-games exists, even when (Formula presented.). In fact, a pseudo-polynomial algorithm for BWR-games would already imply their polynomial solvability. In this short note, we show that BWR-games can be solved via convex programming in pseudo-polynomial time if the number of random positions is a constant.