A full closed mathematical model to describe and calculate Kondratiev’s long wave (LW) of economic development is presented for the first time. The innovative process that generates a new long wave in the economy is described as a stochastic Poisson process. The key role in constructing production functions during both the upward and downward trends of the LW is played by the self-similarity property of the innovative process, which is determined by its fractal structure. The role of the switch from an upward wave to a downward one is played by entrepreneurial profit; this article places primary emphasis on calculation of it. The practical effect of the model developed is illustrated through predictive calculations of GDP movement paths and the number of employees in the economy and the dynamics of fixed physical capital formation and growth of labor productivity by the example of the development of the US economy during the coming sixth Kondratiev LW (2018–2050).
Критическая рецензия опубликованной статьи:
Dong, X., Milholland, B., & Vijg, J. (2016). Evidence for a limit to human lifespan. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19793
Intra-organizational collaboration has long been recognized as a potential source of improved performance for public organizations. In collaborative organizations, frontline employees can leverage interpersonal networks to access a broad pool of expertise and experience, resources that can then be used to overcome obstacles or take advantage of emergent opportunities. Given this link to goals, information flow, and empowerment, this study examines how intra-organizational collaboration affects work motivation, and posits that reduced role ambiguity plays a key role in this relationship. Building on previous literature, three species of collaboration—vertical interpersonal, horizontal interpersonal, and inter–work unit collaboration—are discussed. Using data from a large survey of American federal employees, structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized model. The results of the analysis suggest that reduced role ambiguity functions as an important mediating mechanism linking intra-organizational collaboration to work motivation. The implications of these findings for public management are discussed.
We present a new combinatorial formula for Hall–Littlewood functions associated with the affine root system of type (Formula presented.), i.e., corresponding to the affine Lie algebra (Formula presented.). Our formula has the form of a sum over the elements of a basis constructed by Feigin, Jimbo, Loktev, Miwa and Mukhin in the corresponding irreducible representation. Our formula can be viewed as a weighted sum of exponentials of integer points in a certain infinite-dimensional convex polyhedron. We derive a weighted version of Brion’s theorem and then apply it to our polyhedron to prove the formula. © 2016 Springer International Publishing
Checking the correctness of distributed systems is one of the most difficult and urgent problems in software engineering. A combined toolset for the verification of real-time distributed systems (RTDS) is described. RTDSs are specified as statecharts in the Universal Modeling Language (UML). The semantics of statecharts is defined by means of hierarchical timed automata. The combined toolset consists of a UML statechart editor, a verification tool for model checking networks of real-time automata in UPPAAL, and a translator of UML statecharts into networks of timed automata. The focus is on the translation algorithm from UML statecharts into networks of hierarchical timed automata. To illustrate the proposed approach to the verification of RTDSs, a toy example of a real-time crossroad traffic control system is analyzed.
Статья представляет собой англоязычное издание статьи, опубликованной во 2-м номере журнала «Общественные науки и современность» за 2011 г. Авторы рассматривают процессы социальной мобильности в двух аспектах, выделяя советский этап, продолжительность которого давала довольно большую накопленную практику для осмысления проблем восходящей/нисходящей мобильности, а также опыт последних полутора десятилетий, когда стало постепенно складываться (и к настоящему моменту, вероятно, во многом уже сложилось) новое российское общество, характерологические особенности которого сегодня стали предметом многочисленных дискуссий.
В статье приводится сравнительный анализ результатов использования «Смешанного подхода к обучению академическому английскому языку» студентов младшего и старшего бакалавриата факультета бизнес информатики и программной инженерии НИУ ВШЭ.
This article deals with the recently revealed paradox that contemporary Muslims score higher on Protestant work ethic than contemporary Protestants. The author tests whether this phenomenon is supported by World Values Survey (WVS) data. According to Inglehart’s theory of post-materialist shift, work ethic should be stronger in the developing societies where there is a lack of existential security. The author also tests whether the effects of the Protestant work ethic extend beyond the religious population of Protestant countries. The multilevel models built on 25,437 respondents in 55 countries show no significant difference in work ethic between Muslims and Protestants. Living in a historically Protestant society does not increase work ethic, but being religious in a Protestant society does. As countries develop, work ethic is likely to decrease. This poses further questions about the universal features of religious ethics and the non-religious factors explaining the economic progress associated with the Protestant work ethic.
A celebrated result in the theory of tournaments is that relative performance evaluation (tournaments) is a superior compensation method to absolute performance evaluation (piece rate contracts) when the agents are risk-averse, the principal is risk- neutral or less risk-averse than the agents and production is subject to common shocks that are large relative to the idiosyncratic shocks. This is because tournaments get closer to the first best by filtering common uncertainty. This paper shows that, sur- prisingly, tournaments are superior even when agents are liquidity constrained so that transfers to them cannot fall short of a predetermined level. The rationale is that, by providing insurance against common shocks through a tournament, payments to the agents in unfavorable states increase and payments in favorable states decrease which enables the principal to satisfy tight liquidity constraints for the agents without pay- ing any ex ante rents to them, while simultaneously providing higher-power incentives than under piece rates. The policy implication of our analysis is that firms should adopt relative performance evaluation over absolute performance evaluation regardless of whether the agents are liquidity (wealth) constrained or not
In this study, nine methods for measuring indirect importance are compared on the basis of their discriminatory power and stability. To the best knowledge of the authors, the stability of results obtained with different methods is assessed for the first time. The deficiencies of an existing criterion for assessing diagnosticity are pointed out and a modified version suggested. The empirical comparison is based on two real-world datasets from the ecommerce industry. Even though none of the methods appeared to be the best according to both criteria simultaneously, there seem to be grounds for recommending the theoretically sound Shapley value decomposition of R-square if stability and discrimination are about equally important for a decision maker, while negative contributions are undesirable.