Protection of the environment can be achieved by creating conditions that ensure the complete absence, or at least minimal content, of hazardous substances in industrial waste. Therefore, in production processes where the main and/or additive product is material with mercury content, the prevention of mercury vapor emissions into the atmosphere is an essential prerequisite for safety and environmental protection. However, achieving these indispensable safety conditions requires significant energy input. Detailed analysis of existing techniques and equipment for mercury extraction from mercury-containing and mercury-contaminated materials as well as plastics containing waste showed that all of the proposed methods are energy-intensive and cannot entirely remove mercury vapor from the emissions. A new technique of the thermal demercurization of mercury-containing materials has been offered. The original feature of the proposed technique is the distillation and condensation of mercury vapor within an inert gas flow circulating in the closed loop system. The offered technique ensures a substantial reduction in energy consumption while cooling the mercury vapor for its condensation and almost entirely eliminates mercury emissions into the atmosphere. Keywords: recycling of mercury-containing materials, environmental protection, energy consumption, thermal demercurization, inert gas flow, closed gas loop system, closed liquid loop system.
Reference genes selection is one of the most important stages in qPCR data normalization when a problem of quantitative determination of gene expression is addressed. Stability of gene expression level in all experimental conditions is a basic criterion for the reference gene selection. Over the past decade a lot of publications concerning validation methods of suitable reference genes appeared. In this paper, the main approaches (∆Ct, geNorm, qBase and Haller’s equivalence test) were applied for the reference genes identi? fication in HeLa cell line which is one of the most popular cellular models. Expression stability of seven can? didate genes (HPRT1, ACTB, GAPDH, RPS18, HSPC3, UBC and SDHA) was determined at standard condi? tions, under heat shock and during relaxation. The genes RPS18 and HSPC3 were chosen as reference after the combination of all the validation methods
Near-annual pollen records for the last 100 years were obtained from a 65-cm peat monolith from a raised peat bog in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (southern part of the Valdai Hills, European Russia) and compared with the available long-term meteorological observations. An age–depth model for the peat monolith was constructed by 210Pb and 137Cs dating. Cross-correlation and the Granger causality analysis indicated a broad range of statistically significant correlations between the pollen accumulation rate (PAR) of the main forest-forming trees and shrubs (Picea, Pinus, Betula, Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus, Alnus, and Corylus) and the air temperature and precipitation during the previous 3 years. Results showed that high air temperatures during the growing season (May–September) in the year prior to the flowering led to an increase in pollen productivity of the main tree species. The statistically significant correlation between the PAR of trees and shrubs and winter precipitation of the current and previous years could reflect the influence of winter precipitation on soil water availability and as a result on tree growth and functioning in the spring.
Evolutionary games are used in various elds stretching from economics to biology. Most assume a constant payoff matrix, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we propose a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A nite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution by applying the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. Therefore, we present an exactly solvable version of an evolutionary game with annealed noise in the payoff matrix.
Linguistic processing is based on a close collaboration between temporal and frontal regions connected by two pathways: the “dorsal” and “ventral pathways” (assumed to support phonological and semantic processing, respectively, in adults). We investigated here the development of these pathways at the onset of language acquisition, during the first post-natal weeks, using cross-sectional diffusion imaging in 21 healthy infants (6–22 weeks of age) and 17 young adults. We compared the bundle organization and microstructure at these two ages using tractography and original clustering analyses of diffusion tensor imaging parameters. We observed structural similarities between both groups, especially concerning the dorsal/ventral pathway segregation and the arcuate fasciculus asymmetry. We further highlighted the developmental tempos of the linguistic bundles: The ventral pathway maturation was more advanced than the dorsal pathway maturation, but the latter catches up during the first post-natal months. Its fast development during this period might relate to the learning of speech cross-modal representations and to the first combinatorial analyses of the speech input.