“Icon”, from Greek word eikón (image), is normally understood as idol, exponent, something representative, notable. In Semiotics from Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), the concept of “icon” is quite particular and it makes reference to a speciﬁc type of sign: one that represents its object through relations of similarity or analogy, taking some of its essential quality. The iconic sign is related to design so far as the icon maintains with its object a relation of quality. The icon, in saying about the object, says something of itself, some of its characteristics are present in the product. The constitution of the icon by the similarity between the demonstrative materialities of the product deﬁnes its formal-aesthetic character of transmitting information. While employing the expression “design icons”, we attempt to refer to both meanings described above. We will mention great names of design in Germany and in Brazil but we will especially think the products of design as objects-icons, i.e. with qualitative characteristics inherent of the icon. We will consider the context of Bauhaus, the school that ﬁrst established design as discipline, passing by its practical and philosophical methods, which inspired design in the world. The article culminates in the approach to the relations that we ﬁnd between the iconic sign and the product of design, as well as to the speciﬁc references to German and Brazilian designers, icons of design.
Within classical liberalism, we are free to pursue our private ideals of the good life, as long as we do not infringe on the rights and interests of others. Whether politics can really be non- teleological is debatable. 1 It is difficult to see how the contemporary state with its broad social policy agenda can be confined to the boundaries set by the classical liberalism theory. However, even assuming it can, the same principle is simply inapplicable to education. An educator by definition must embrace a shared ideal of the good life. ...
Independence – Friendly (IF) Logic, или “дружественная – к - независимости” логика, еще не достигла возраста совершеннолетия, однако уже в младенчестве была провозглашена своим отцом Яаакко Хинтиккой революцией в логике ХХ века. Задача статьи – показать чрезмерную амбициозность такой оценки IF –логики и, вместе с тем, выявить близкий к революционному потенциал этой логики в решении задач, стоящих перед логической прагматикой.
This article attempts to find out whether the contemporary antiphysicalism has a positive program. Using the approaches of such contemporary analytical philosophers as Colin McGinn, Joseph Levine, Noam Chomsky, Thomas Nagel, and David Chalmers, the author evaluates the ratio of negative and positive components in modern antiphysicalistic approaches, and determines the role of skepticism in their theories. To what extent can antiphysicalism withstand physicalism, and is physicalism in spite of its faults in a better position, since it offers, admittedly imperfect answers, while antiphysicalism does not offer anything other than criticism of the existing theories?
Истина является одной из ключевых ценностей западной культуры, которая являлась в разных образах в истории западной философии. В истории индийской философии истина занимала такое же положение. Иногда путь превращения слова «истина» в философскую категорию в Индии чрезвычайно сложно проследить. В статье выделены основные направления дискуссий и главные смыслы индийских терминов (satya, jñāna, Dharma, prāmāṇya), которыми обозначалась истина. Первыми предложили свои концепции истины буддисты, сначала – как учение о четырех благородных истинах, затем – как учение о двух истинах (высшей и низшей). В индийской традиции, также как в западной философии, истина исследовалась в разных образах: как экзистенциальная, моральная, онтологическая, сотериологическая, эпистемологическая и логическая. Индийцы различали также выводную истину и истину как семантический концепт. Стремление построить теоретическое учение о мире, которое объясняло бы существование разных его уровней, природного и сверхприродного, познаваемых рациональными и сверхрациональными способами, привело, с западной точки зрения, к парадоксальным, противоречивым результатам. Пример такой противоречивой эпистемологии можно найти в джайнизме.
Natalia Razumeyko and Sergey Akopov argue that the complexity of the Russian state has both placed a premium on regional identities as the bedrock of Federal unity, but created new vulnerabilities for the Russian state in an age of centralisation.
H. Slater famously argued that there are no paraconsistent logics, inasmuch as paraconsistent negation is not a proper negation. Such a vivid attack has been variously replied, including an appropriate reply by J.Y. Beziau, where the author resorted to the same conceptual framework as Slater’s argument: the theory of opposition. Slater argues that, in order to overcome the view that everything follows from an inconsistent set of premises, some paraconsistentists unjustifiably neglect a crucial property of logical negation: to ban contradictions. The point is to shed new light upon the concepts Slater used in his argument to depict paraconsistency.
The paper focuses on the four “pedagogical” novels by writer and journalist Frida Vigdorova, mostly known for her records of the Joseph Brodsky’s trial of 1964. These novels written in 1949–1958, as well as some of her journalistic publications of the 1950s, made her one of the most influential publicists who wrote on the problems of school and schoolchildren. The article traces Vigdorova’s key ideas and literary techniques back to the second half of 1940s, when she wrote her first novels, first and foremost My Class (1949). Although Vigdorova was regarded as a follower of Anton Makarenko, the famous pedagogue of the 1920s and the 1930s, one may find a significant shift in her interpretation of his theory. The main difference consists in her emphasis on the idea of the “individual approach” to each child, by contrast to the earlier attention to the issues of the collective. This idea is represented as a strong moral demand on every teacher or educator. The author shows that this idea was “re-invented” in the late 1940s by the officials of the ministry of education and pedagogical publicists in order to respond to a strong pressure of the pedagogical corps that had to face severe problems that emerged as direct social effects of WWII and were exacerbated by the banning of all psychological approaches to children after 1936. The “individual approach” becomes not only an ideological, but also a literary basis of all Vigdorova’s novels, a structural principle of her narratives.
The author examines specific features of the activity of Russian Empire consulates in Mongolia which analyzed the political and military situation at the time. The Russian Foreign Ministry offices’ work is analyzed in observing China’s policy toward Outer Mongolia and neighboring regions. The article also dwells on Russian diplomatic activity to diminish Japan’s influence in Mongolia and discloses its mediatory role in solving the “Tibet problem.”
Статья посвящена истории жизненного пути и коллекции из фондов ГМИР имама Шамсутдинова (1838-1937).
A new analysis of the so-called Inscription on the Chalice of Solomon (known mostly from literary documents in Slavonic) is based on the totality of the available sources, including a recently published (2000) Greek recension and recently found (2013) but unpublished two Latin ones. It is argued that the text was written in Hebrew in the late Second Temple period, being therefore roughly contemporaneous to the Damascus Document and some other Dead Sea Scrolls and representing a similar but different liturgy and theology. The original liturgical setting of the chalice as a liturgical utensil is some kind of new wine festival.