Since the sixteenth century, books written for to help the merchants in their practices and in particular to learn how to keep accounts spread across Europe. Such books only appeared in Russia at the second half of the eighteenth century. At that time, being aware of themerchants’ growing role within the State and society, the monarchy tried to organize a commercial education and encouraged the dissemination of books devoted to the special needs of trade and accounting in the country. So these first works, their content and their impact on the vocational training and the practice of merchants are studied in this paper. It aims to underline the link between these books and the similar literature published in other European countries between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Their publication propagated the modern accounting knowledge in Russia. However, this literature did not immediately captivate interest among the Russian merchant’s circles. They preferred the traditional way of education and are indifferent to the use of double-entry bookkeeping. This can be explained bythe innovative and complex nature itself of the discussed books’ content. It is also important to understand the historical context in which the merchant activity took place at this time and the social position of the merchants. Accordingly, the impact of the commercial and accounting literature on practice of merchants in the eighteenth century should not be overestimated but rather considered in regard to the accounting thought. In fact, it marks the beginning of the development of accounting thought in Russia.
This Issue is composed of two panels, namely Section I (Special) and Section II. The major part of the issue belongs to Special Section ‘The Early State in Anthropological Theory’ withPeter Skalník, one of the founders of the early state concept,as its Guest Editor.
The processes of the growing societal complexity, emergence of new forms of social and political inequality, formation of pre-state or complex stateless polities belong to the most intriguing subjects of Anthropology and Social Philosophy.
Social Evolution & History has consistently published the research articles devoted to these issues. The chiefdom concept plays a special role within the theories that try to account for the transition from simple social systems to systems of greater complexity. Following its emergence in the 1950s this notion became an important heuristic means to advance Anthropology and Archaeology. It was also subjected to vigorous debates within which the participants denied the methodological significance of chiefdoms and the very notion of the chiefdom. These debates are becoming even more vigorous in connection with the rapid accumulation of information on ancient societies (see the dispute over chiefdoms between Timothy Pauketat and Robert Carneiro in 9.1). There is also much discrepancy in the definition of ‘chiefdom’ as some scholars consider it a standard phase of cultural evolution, a natural transition between the ‘Big Man’ society and the states of the ancient world.
В статье характеризуются первые шаги в науке выдающегося специалиста в области археографии, источниковедения, исследования Метрики Великого княжества Литовского.
It is not surprising that Mubarak’s administration “overlooked” the social explosion. Indeed, statistical data righteously claimed that the country was developing very successfully. Economic growth rates were high (even in the crisis years). Poverty and inequality levels were among the lowest in the Third World. Global food prices were rising, but the government was taking serious measures to mitigate their effect on the poorest layers of the population. Unemployment level (in per cent) was less than in many developed countries of the world and, moreover, was declining, and so were population growth rates. What would be the grounds to expect a full-scale social explosion? Of course, the administration had a sort of reliable information on the presence of certain groups of dissident “bloggers”, but how could one expect that they would be able to inspire to go to the Tahrir any great masses of people? It was even more difficult to figure out that Mubarak’s regime would be painfully struck by its own modernization successes of the 1980s, which led to the sharp decline of crude death rate and especially of infant and child mortality in 1975–1990. Without these successes many young Egyptians vehemently demanding Mubarak’s resignation (or even death) would have been destined to die in early childhood and simply would not have survived to come out to the Tahrir Square.
Everett C. Hughes (1897–1983) was one of the first exchange professors, teaching sociology in Frankfurt. During his stay in the spring of 1948 he wrote field notes and after his return to Chicago he submitted a book proposal to the University of Chicago Press. Its director rejected the proposed book and Hughes stopped working on it. This paper describes what Hughes wanted to write and discusses then the only published article on the topic, Hughes’ “Good People and Dirty Work”, which appeared in 1962. © 2015, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
Расширенная рецензия на книгу Е. Правиловой "Собственность стремление к общему благу в имперской России"
En el articulo se analiza la concepción del poder desarollada por los juristas del Alfonso el Sabio en las Partidas. Tras un sistema de oposiciones se muestra una papel principal del rey como el jefe político y también espiritual del su reyno. Se nota también la distinción principal existente en la doctrina alfonsí entre el rey y emperador – el poder del primero tiene un carácter místico, mientras que el de segundo se basa sobre los fundamentos puramente racionales.
This article follows the “return of emotions” within the scholarship on law and criminal justice, one of the most promising methodological and conceptual innovations to emerge during the last two decades. The article discusses the possibilities of applying an environmental approach to emotional management using trials of the abuse of parents from early modern Russia. Through a close analysis of trial narratives, I develop the notion of emotional environment to contextualize trials within a cultural and physical setting constructed by the specific way emotions are communicated in order to influence the legal outcomes of the trial. It is argued here that early modern court narratives (and their creators) used an environmental approach to emotional management. They focused on the creation of the specific cultural and physical settings to externalize their emotions for successful mediation of their conflicts. These settings emerged as a result of the interplay of individuals and their surroundings, including natural, social, built, learning and informational environments that provided a specific way in which emotions were consumed by individuals and collectives.
В статье рассматривается политика Екатерины II, которая стремилась укрепить позиции России в системе европейских союзов, вписать ее в политику «баланса сил», строилась, исходя не только из международной ситуации в Европе во второй половине XVIII века, но и того образа Испании, который создавали русские, оказавшиеся в это время в пиренейской стране, и который внимательно изучали в Петербурге, в частности С.С. Зиновьев.
Герой статьи – ученый, экономист, статистик, специалист по теории исторической мысли, историк и теоретик науки А.В. Полетаев (1952–2010). Его исследования стали новым словом в ряде социальных дисциплин. Статья повествует о пути А.В. Полетаева в историческую науку, о движении его исследовательских интересов от анализа экономических процессов к экономической истории, затем – к современной теории истории, изучению эволюции образов прошлого в разные эпохи, исследованиям массовых исторических представлений. Анализируются основные теоретические идеи цикла исторических работ, написанных в соавторстве с И.М. Савельевой.
Review of the state of the art in Russian environmental history for the rubric Notepad of the European Society for Environmental History