В статье рассматривается церковная жизнь митрополии Сардинии в VI в. на материале писем свт. Григория Двоеслова. Митрополит Сардинии Януарий не был в состоянии обеспечить порядок на острове, следить за поведением под- властных клириков, да и сам не раз оказывался замешанным в преступлениях. В статье рассматриваются различные примеры нарушения клириками Сарди- нии церковной дисциплины и несоблюдения постановлений церковных собо- ров. Так, священники часто вели себя неподобающим образом: развратничали, не слушали митрополита, неправильно крестили. Провинциальный собор со- зывался редко, а некоторые кафедры по недосмотру Януария оставались неза- мещенными. Все это весьма удручало свт. Григория Великого, который всеми силами ста- рался упрочить церковную дисциплину на острове. В своих письмах, адресо- ванных Януарию, папа разбирал ошибки и прегрешения последнего, апеллируя к Священному Писанию и постановлениям соборных канонов. Характерно, что свт. Григорий всегда аргументирует свою позицию. Одновременно он ста- рался повысить авторитет Януария в глазах клира, видя в этом залог порядка и стабильности. Письма свт. Григория Великого показывают, что от личности и характера митрополита в конечном счете напрямую зависела церковная жизнь в регионе. Этот вывод согласуется с «Пастырским правилом» свт. Григория, в котором дается идеал епископа: только обладая определенными нравственны- ми качествами, епископ может управлять своей общиной и наставлять паству и клир на путь истинный.
The implementation of socialism in North Korea required the large-scale involvement of women in economic relations. In order to align the rights of women and men in social life, the government pursued a policy of gender equality, conducting extensive advocacy among the female population aimed at a transformation of the understanding of women’s social roles and the nature of femininity. In the original context of women being encouraged to be workers and passionate contributors to the construction of the socialist state, the traditional stance on women as caring mothers and wives was supplemented with internationalist rhetoric on womanhood. However, with the transition to the Juche-oriented socialism, the discourse on women was modified, increasing the emphasis on motherhood and childrearing and reducing internationalism. Based on an analysis of the women’s magazine The Korean Woman, the present study analyses discourses on motherhood and childrearing in 21st century North Korea. The preliminary results of the research show that, while motherhood remains an essential component of the discourse on women, it is formulated in terms of building a powerful socialist state.
В XI–XIII в. после перенесения мощей Исидора Севильского из Севильи, занятой мусульманами, в христианский Леон в леонской епархии стал складываться культ святого. Развитию этого культа послужили сочинения Луки Туйского, каноника собора св. Исидора в Леоне, впоследствии епископа г. Туй в Галисии. В статье анализируется образ Исидора в его историческом произведении, «Всемирной хронике», охватывающей период от сотворения мира до взятия христианами Кордовы в 1236 г. Автор показывает, какие источники использовал Лука Туйский для создания образа св. Исидора и как этот образ повлиял на дальнейшую хронистику. Так, Исидор во «Всемирной хронике» предстает учителем и законодателем Испании, хранителем истинной веры в противовес пророку Мухаммаду, с которым, по версии Луки, он чуть было не встретился. Кроме того, Исидор, оказывается, предсказал не только арабское завоевание, но и последующую Реконкисту, став таким образом одним покровителем христиан Испании.
The paper is dedicated premises of origin and patterns of development of the doctrine of “fair price” Aquinas. Showing contradictions exchange of agricultural products to urban goods and services, resulting in a developed feudalism. For agricultural products incoming to the city market, the situation was characterized as the free competition, while medieval guild tried to create a monopoly conditions for the production and sale of its products, which objectively leads to distortion of prices. Under these conditions, the development of the problem of "fair price" becomes extremely important. The paper shows how scholasticism using theological methodology, trying to solve this problem.
Greed condemned, was considered evil and sin of avarice considered the source of all evils. This tradition goes back to the interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew John Chrysostom. Alexander Halensis one of the first attempted rehabilitation of commercial activities and even tried to criticize the position of the Pseudo-Chrysostom that the merchant is not pleasing to God. In the "sum of all theology" Alexander Halensis wrote that moral qualities profits depend on the circumstances of 6:
1. From the person selling (which allowed the laity, the monks are not allowed);
2. His intentions (satisfaction or desire for profit);
3. The method of sale (by fair means or fraud);
4. Time of trade (on weekdays or holidays, designed for prayer or service of God);
5. Selling place (in the market or in holy places);
6. Relationship to the buyers (which is expressed in the level - excessive or normal - the selling price).
Analyzes the rationale arguments to grounding the doctrine of "fair price", show the evolution of the concept during XII - XIV centuries, as well as its relationship with the teachings of the scholastics on the percentage. The paper deals with various estimates of the concept of "fair value" of Thomas Aquinas, resulting in the history of economic thought. Critically analyzed the "contribution" of Thomas Aquinas in the development of the labor theory of value. Such an ambiguous approach to a "fair" price led to what some researchers considered the forerunner of Thomas Aquinas, the cost of labor history: I. M. Kulisher (1906), R. H. Tawney (1926), J.-B. Kraus (1930), S. Hagenauer (1931), A. Fanfani (1935), O.V. Trachtenberg (1957), Y. Mike. (1994) - and others have tried to try on his views with utility theory (since it appeared demand Aquinas had to implement trade) trying to try two beginnings consumer and labor: H. Contzen (1869), E. Schreiber (1913), O. Scbilling (1923), R. De Roover (1958), R. M. Nureev (2005). Therefore, in the second half of the XX century, many researchers refuse to consider a "fair price" as the basis of cost, and steel is identified with its current market price: A. Sapori (1955), J. T. Noonan (1957), L. W. Baldwin (1959), Dr. T. Stetsyura (2010). The paper analyzes the arguments "pro" and "contra" in favor of each of these approaches.
In a previous article, “The Coming Epoch of New Coalitions: Possible Scenarios of the Near Future” (Grinin and Korotayev 2011), it was preliminarily demonstrated that the turbulent events of late 2010 and 2011 in the Arab World may well be regarded as a start of the global reconfiguration. The subsequent events have confirmed this supposition. That is why in the present article we develop this important theme. The article offers a thorough analysis of the internal conditions of Arab countries on the eve of revolutionary events, as well as causes and consequences of the Arab Revolutions. The article also offers an analysis of similar historical World System reconfigurations starting with the sixteenth-century Reformation. The analysis is based on the theory (developed by the authors) of the periodical catch-ups experienced by the political component of the World System that tends to lag behind the World System economic component. Thus, we show that the asynchrony of development of various functional subsystems of the World System is a cause of the synchrony of major political changes. In otherwords,within the globalization process, political transformations tend to lag far behind economic transformations. And such lags cannot constantly increase, the gaps are eventually bridged, but in not quite a smooth way. The article also suggests an explanation why the current catch-up of the World System political component started in the Arab World.
Статья продолжает развернувшуюся на страницах журнала Cahiers du Monde Russe дискуссию о реальности зафиксированной в юридических документах структуры русского общества 18 в. Автор обращает внимание на векселя - источник, до сих пор не привлекавший внимание исследователей и содержащий ценную информацию по этой проблематике. На конкретных примерах автор показывает некоторые особенности социального самоопределения, которые позволяют говорить о том подвижности социальной структуры 18 века и размытости некоторых границ.
The paper describes changing patterns of commercial fish catch in the downstream part of the Neva River and the eastern Gulf of Finland and analyzes drivers of these changes for the period 1929-1995. We summarize catch data on 20 species and species groups of fishes and lamprey, as well as available abiotic data (salinity, temperature and water transparency). Water transparency gradually decreased during the 20th century being inseparable from a number of non-quantified anthropogenic factors, thus it can be used as an integral index of anthropogenic loading on the ecosystem. Because fisheries statistics were not published regularly, catch data were extracted from archives and various publications. Fishing locations, gear and target species changed over time in relation to each other, reflecting technological developments in fisheries, commercial demands for fishery products and the abundance of fish populations. Until the 18-19th centuries, fisheries took place mostly in rivers where weirs and set nets targeted sturgeon, salmon and whitefish. By the end of the 19th century, herring and smelt were the main targets of fixed nets in coastal areas. A century later, the main commercial species, herring, was harvested with pelagic trawls operating offshore in the Gulf. This evolution in fisheries, along with other anthropogenic activities, caused severe declines in diadromous species. Spawning migrations that make them easy to catch, and their high market value, make diadromous fish more vulnerable than other groups. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that catches of most diadromous species decreased with increasing transparency, which may reflect their response to anthropogenic pressure. Marine and freshwater fish suffered from anthropogenic pressure, but to a lesser extent probably because of a wider distribution and dispersal, and more capital-intensive fishing methods. Catches of marine species, except herring, significantly increased in the 1970-1980s when salinity was comparatively high. We found no correlation of fish catches with temperature.
This paper examines the early history of agricultural entomology in the Russian empire in the decades before Russian universities and learned societies occupied centre stage in the intellectual life of the country. It aims to contribute to the ongoing discussions of historically contingent relations between ‘amateurs’ and ‘professionals’ in scientific research. It explores the social identities of those people who took part in the production and circulation of scientific knowledge, and argues that in this period Russian officialdom played a major role in these processes. The state officials’ engagement with natural history originated out of a broader information gathering agenda, which was characteristic of the early- to mid-nineteenth century. At the same time, the paper highlights the importance of provincial observers who were indispensable for providing field data for bureaucratic ‘inventorying’ of imperial resources. This dependency on local observers had far reaching implications, including the dissemination of the language and practices of natural history among wider audiences.
The concept of the early state introduced by Henri J. M. Claessen and Peter Skalník appears to have been the last among the great epoch-making political-anthropological theories of the 60s and 70s of the last century (e.g., Sahlins [1960, 1963, 1968], Service [1962, 1975], Fried [1967, 1975]), which did more than just giving a new consideration of socio-political evolution, its stages and models. One may even say that these theories succeeded in filling the evolutionary gap between the pre-state forms and the state, which had formed by that moment in the academic consciousness due to the fact that the accumulated ethnographic and archaeological data could hardly fit the prior schemes.
In this paper we re-analyze Claessen's dataset on the "Early States". Our factor analysis shows that Claessen’s Early State typology is more or less justified, though we suggest some corrections and amendments to his typologization and his model of Early State evolution. For example, we show that the development of personal ownership of land correlates rather weakly with the political development of the Early State, and that political development might just as easily be accompanied by the strengthening of communal ownership. We also examine the correlation between Early State political development and ruler sacralization. Though this correlation is insignificant for the whole sample (Rho = +0.01; p = 0.48 [1-tailed]), its insignificance is accounted for by two distinct evolutionary patterns. The first is observed among the cultures of the “Axial Age” zone (the belt of the high civilizations of Eurasia and North Africa) and is characterized by a strong negative correlation between political development and ruler sacralization (Rho = – 0.57). The second is observed throughout the rest of the world and is characterized by a strong positive correlation between the two variables (Rho = + 0.55). We discuss possible causes of this impressive difference.
Since the sixteenth century, books written for to help the merchants in their practices and in particular to learn how to keep accounts spread across Europe. Such books only appeared in Russia at the second half of the eighteenth century. At that time, being aware of themerchants’ growing role within the State and society, the monarchy tried to organize a commercial education and encouraged the dissemination of books devoted to the special needs of trade and accounting in the country. So these first works, their content and their impact on the vocational training and the practice of merchants are studied in this paper. It aims to underline the link between these books and the similar literature published in other European countries between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Their publication propagated the modern accounting knowledge in Russia. However, this literature did not immediately captivate interest among the Russian merchant’s circles. They preferred the traditional way of education and are indifferent to the use of double-entry bookkeeping. This can be explained bythe innovative and complex nature itself of the discussed books’ content. It is also important to understand the historical context in which the merchant activity took place at this time and the social position of the merchants. Accordingly, the impact of the commercial and accounting literature on practice of merchants in the eighteenth century should not be overestimated but rather considered in regard to the accounting thought. In fact, it marks the beginning of the development of accounting thought in Russia.