The Soviet system of knowledge production based on cooperation, knowledge sharing, but also intense competition was already an inspiration for innovation policymakers in the U.S. and in Europe back in the 1950 and 1960s. Nowadays, as the global economy is moving towards a new mode of production, the Soviet case may still play an important role to help to frame a better institutional approach to innovation. With the dramatic challenges already brought by the fourth industrial revolution and the tectonic economic and social shifts it is expected to cause around the world, the Soviet case with all its pros and cons is becoming more and more relevant for this debate as it provides necessary empirical data to consider other institutional approaches to innovation distinct from the established property-focused model. In this context, intellectual property and competition law scholars hopefully would better understand the Soviet innovation system through further academic studies.
We present a new class of multifractal process on R, constructed using an embedded branching process. The construction makes use of known results on multitype branching random walks, and along the way constructs cascade measures on the boundaries of multitype Galton–Watson trees. Our class of processes includes Brownian motion subjected to a continuous multifractal time-change. In addition, if we observe our process at a fixed spatial resolution, then we can obtain a finite Markov representation of it, which we can use for on-line simulation. That is, given only the Markov representation at step n, we can generate step n+1 in O(log n) operations. Detailed pseudo-code for this algorithm is provided.R
A full closed mathematical model to describe and calculate Kondratiev’s long wave (LW) of economic development is presented for the first time. The innovative process that generates a new long wave in the economy is described as a stochastic Poisson process. The key role in constructing production functions during both the upward and downward trends of the LW is played by the self-similarity property of the innovative process, which is determined by its fractal structure. The role of the switch from an upward wave to a downward one is played by entrepreneurial profit; this article places primary emphasis on calculation of it. The practical effect of the model developed is illustrated through predictive calculations of GDP movement paths and the number of employees in the economy and the dynamics of fixed physical capital formation and growth of labor productivity by the example of the development of the US economy during the coming sixth Kondratiev LW (2018–2050).
Критическая рецензия опубликованной статьи:
Dong, X., Milholland, B., & Vijg, J. (2016). Evidence for a limit to human lifespan. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19793
Intra-organizational collaboration has long been recognized as a potential source of improved performance for public organizations. In collaborative organizations, frontline employees can leverage interpersonal networks to access a broad pool of expertise and experience, resources that can then be used to overcome obstacles or take advantage of emergent opportunities. Given this link to goals, information flow, and empowerment, this study examines how intra-organizational collaboration affects work motivation, and posits that reduced role ambiguity plays a key role in this relationship. Building on previous literature, three species of collaboration—vertical interpersonal, horizontal interpersonal, and inter–work unit collaboration—are discussed. Using data from a large survey of American federal employees, structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized model. The results of the analysis suggest that reduced role ambiguity functions as an important mediating mechanism linking intra-organizational collaboration to work motivation. The implications of these findings for public management are discussed.
We present a new combinatorial formula for Hall–Littlewood functions associated with the affine root system of type (Formula presented.), i.e., corresponding to the affine Lie algebra (Formula presented.). Our formula has the form of a sum over the elements of a basis constructed by Feigin, Jimbo, Loktev, Miwa and Mukhin in the corresponding irreducible representation. Our formula can be viewed as a weighted sum of exponentials of integer points in a certain infinite-dimensional convex polyhedron. We derive a weighted version of Brion’s theorem and then apply it to our polyhedron to prove the formula. © 2016 Springer International Publishing
Checking the correctness of distributed systems is one of the most difficult and urgent problems in software engineering. A combined toolset for the verification of real-time distributed systems (RTDS) is described. RTDSs are specified as statecharts in the Universal Modeling Language (UML). The semantics of statecharts is defined by means of hierarchical timed automata. The combined toolset consists of a UML statechart editor, a verification tool for model checking networks of real-time automata in UPPAAL, and a translator of UML statecharts into networks of timed automata. The focus is on the translation algorithm from UML statecharts into networks of hierarchical timed automata. To illustrate the proposed approach to the verification of RTDSs, a toy example of a real-time crossroad traffic control system is analyzed.