Background, or systematic, risks are integral parts of many systems and models in insurance and finance. These risks can, for example, be economic in nature, or they can carry more technical connotations, such as errors or intrusions, which could be intentional or unintentional. A most natural question arises from the practical point of view: is the given system really affected by these risks? In this paper we offer an algorithm for answering this question, given input-output data and appropriately constructed statistics, which rely on the order statistics of inputs and the concomitants of outputs. Even though the idea is rooted in complex statistical and probabilistic considerations, the algorithm is easy to implement and use in practice, as illustrated using simulated data.
We consider the optimal bail-out dividend problem with fixed transaction cost for a Lévy risk model with a constraint on the expected present value of injected capital. To solve this problem, we first consider the optimal bail-out dividend problem with transaction cost and capital injection and show the optimality of reflected (c_1,c_2) -policies. We then find the optimal Lagrange multiplier, by showing that in the dual Lagrangian problem the complementary slackness conditions are met. Finally, we present some numerical examples to support our results.